Estate Planning Blog Articles

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Will Moving to a New State Impact My Estate Planning?

Since the coronavirus pandemic hit the U.S., baby boomers have been speeding up their retirement plans. Many Americans have also been moving to new states. For retirees, the non-financial considerations often revolve around weather, proximity to grandchildren and access to quality healthcare and other services.

Forbes’ recent article entitled “Thinking of Retiring and Moving? Consider the Financial Implications First” provides some considerations for retirees who may set off on a move.

  1. Income tax rates. Before moving to a new state, you should know how much income you’re likely to be generating in retirement. It’s equally essential to understand what type of income you’re going to generate. Your income as well as the type of income you receive could significantly influence your economic health as a retiree, after you make your move. Before moving to a new state, look into the tax code of your prospective new state. Many states have flat income tax rates, such as Massachusetts at 5%. The states that have no income tax include Alaska, Florida, Nevada, Texas, Washington, South Dakota and Wyoming. Other states that don’t have flat income tax rates may be attractive or unattractive, based on your level of income. Another important consideration is the tax treatment of Social Security income, pension income and retirement plan income. Some states treat this income just like any other source of income, while others offer preferential treatment to the income that retirees typically enjoy.
  2. Housing costs. The cost of housing varies dramatically from state to state and from city to city, so understand how your housing costs are likely to change. You should also consider the cost of buying a home, maintenance costs, insurance and property taxes. Property taxes may vary by state and also by county. Insurance costs can also vary.
  3. Sales taxes. Some states (New Hampshire, Oregon, Montana, Delaware and Alaska) have no sales taxes. However, most states have a sales tax of some kind, which generally adds to the cost of living. California has the highest sales tax, currently at 7.5%, then comes Tennessee, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Mississippi and Indiana, each with a sales tax of 7%. Many other places also have a county sales tax and a city sales tax. You should also research those taxes.
  4. The state’s financial health. Examine the health of the state pension systems where you are thinking about moving. The states with the highest level of unfunded pension debts include Connecticut, Illinois, Alaska, New Jersey and Hawaii. They each have unfunded state pensions at a level of more than 20% of their state GDP. If you’re thinking about moving to one of those states, you’re more apt to see tax increases in the future because of the huge financial obligations of these states.
  5. The overall cost of living. Examine your budget to see the extent to which your annual living expenses might increase or decrease in your new location because food, healthcare and transportation costs can vary by location. If your costs are going to go up, that should be all right, provided you have the financial resources to fund a larger expense budget. Be sure that you’ve accounted for the differences before you move.
  6. Estate planning considerations. If this is going to be your last move, it’s likely that the laws of your new state will apply to your estate after you die. Many states don’t have an estate or gift tax, which means your estate and gifts will only be subject to federal tax laws. However, a number of states, such as Maryland and Iowa, have a state estate tax.

You should talk to an experienced estate planning attorney about the estate and gift tax implications of your move.

Reference: Forbes (Nov. 30, 2021) “Thinking of Retiring and Moving? Consider the Financial Implications First”

When Do I Need to Review Will?

You should take a look at your will and other estate planning documents at least every few years, unless there are reasons to do it more frequently. Some reasons to do it sooner include things like marriage, divorce, birth or adoption of a child, coming into a lot of money (i.e., inheritance, lottery win, etc.) or even moving to another state where estate laws are different from where your will was drawn up.

CNBC’s recent article entitled “When it comes to a will or estate plan, don’t just set it and forget it. You need to keep them updated” says that one of the primary considerations for a review is a life event — when there’s a major change in your life.

The pandemic has created an interest in estate planning, which includes a will and other legal documents that address end-of-life considerations. Research now shows that 18- to 34-year-olds are now more likely (by 16%) to have a will than those who are in the 35-to-54 age group. In the 25-to-40 age group, just 32% do, according to a survey. Even so, fewer than 46% of U.S. adults have a will.

If you’re among those who have a will or comprehensive estate plan, here are some things to review and why. In addition to reviewing your will in terms of who gets what, see if the person you named as executor is still a suitable choice. An executor must do things such as liquidating accounts, ensuring that your assets go to the proper beneficiaries, paying any debts not discharged (i.e., taxes owed) and selling your home.

Likewise, look at the people to whom you’ve assigned powers of attorney. If you become incapacitated at some point, the people with that authority will handle your medical and financial affairs, if you are unable. The original people you named to handle certain duties may no longer be in a position to do so.

Some assets pass outside of the will, such as retirement accounts, like a Roth IRA or 401(k)plans and life insurance proceeds. As a result, the person named as a beneficiary on those accounts will generally receive the money, regardless of what your will says. Note that 401(k) plans usually require your current spouse to be the beneficiary, unless they legally agree otherwise.

Regular bank accounts can also have beneficiaries listed on a payable-on-death form, obtained at your bank.

If you own a home, make sure to see how it should be titled, so it is given to the person (or people) you intend.

Reference: CNBC (Dec. 7, 2021) “When it comes to a will or estate plan, don’t just set it and forget it. You need to keep them updated”

How Do I Write a Will?

A poorly written or out-of-date will can be costly and ruin an otherwise well-planned estate. Yahoo Entertainment’s recent article entitled “11 Steps to Writing a Will” tells you how to get started and complete your will in 10 simple steps:

  1. Hire an Estate Planning Attorney. Individuals or families with relatively simple financial situations may be able to use an online, reputable software program to complete their wills. However, many situations require an estate planning attorney, such as blended families.
  2. Choose your Beneficiaries. A big mistake people make when planning their estate is failing to name or update beneficiaries on key accounts that work with the plans outlined in their wills. The beneficiary designation on an account supersedes the will, but it’s good to be consistent.
  3. Name an Executor. The executor is responsible for carrying out the wishes expressed in your will.
  4. Select a Guardian for Your Minor Children. It’s common to name multiple guardians, in case one of them named isn’t able to accept the responsibility of guardianship.
  5. Be Specific About Your Bequests. One of the most time-consuming aspects of creating a will can be deciding which assets to include and determining who will get what.
  6. Be Realistic About your Bequests. Practically consider how assets will be distributed. A big reason children stop speaking after a parent’s death is because of boilerplate language directing tangible assets, such as artwork or jewelry, to be divided equally among children.
  7. Attach a Letter of Last Instruction. You can attach an explanatory letter to your will that can serve as a personal way to say goodbye and also provide additional details about certain wishes.
  8. Sign the Will Properly. If you don’t, a will may be declared invalid. Witnesses must sign your will, and in many states, the witnesses can’t be under 18 and those who stand to inherit (“interested parties”).
  9. Keep Your Will in a Safe and Accessible Spot. Make certain that someone you trust knows where to find your will and other important papers and passwords to financial institutions.
  10. Review and Keep Your Up-to-date. Wills should be updated every five years or so, or sooner if you have a major life event, such as the birth or adoption of a new child or grandchild, a divorce, or the death of a spouse or parent.
  11. Add Other Important Estate Planning Documents. A will by itself may not meet all of your estate planning needs. A trust is another estate planning tool that lets you transfer assets when and how you want. A living will communicates your desires for medical treatment or a power of attorney that allows a third party to make financial and legal decisions, along with the will and should be your next step after writing your will.

Reference: Yahoo Entertainment (Jan. 4, 2022) “11 Steps to Writing a Will”

How Should I Plan to Sell My Business?

For many business owners, between 70% and 80% of their wealth is tied up in their business. Research also shows that just 20% to 30% of businesses that go to market actually sell. That leaves 80% of business owners with limited options to monetize the value of their business and wealth for future financial security.

The Tampa Bay Business Journal’s recent article entitled “Selling a family business: Plan to maximize value and preserve wealth” explains that there are several factors facing Boomer business owners, as they consider selling their businesses:

  • They may be worried about forfeiting their income stream.
  • They may feel trapped because the business funds a certain lifestyle.
  • They could be worried about what they’ll do in the next chapter of life after leaving.
  • They may not have a sense of urgency or plan for an unexpected life event, such as an illness or death; and
  • They could be misinformed about options for a strategic exit to capitalize on the business’ value.

It’s critical to start business exit planning now.

It’s not uncommon that when businesses are passed on from one generation to the next, family conflicts can occur. With about three-quarters (70%) of family businesses failing after being passed to the next generation, there’s good reason to reconsider leaving your business to your children in the traditional sense.

More business owner children either can’t afford to buy the family business or would prefer to not be saddled with it. In fact, UBS Global Wealth Management found that 82% of the next generation would prefer the money from the sale of the business. Half of family business owners also don’t know their exit options and have no transition team or transition plan.

About half of all exits from a family business aren’t voluntary. The five Ds — death, disabilities, divorce, distress, and disagreements — can derail a sound business exit strategy. Instead of holding on too long and focusing on just income generation, business owners should look at growing the enterprise value of the business, thus making it more attractive and transferrable to new ownership.

Business owners should have secure contracts, an experienced management team and a sound succession plan to keep the business operating and demonstrate its market value.

You should aim to exit your business when it’s at peak enterprise value and while you have control to depart on your terms.

Simply gifting a family business to the next generation may not be the right decision. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about other options to consider.

Reference: Tampa Bay Business Journal (Nov. 29, 2021) “Selling a family business: Plan to maximize value and preserve wealth”

Does My State Have an Inheritance Tax?

Real Simple’s recent article entitled “Here’s Which States Collect Zero Estate or Inheritance Taxes” explains that inheritance taxes are levies paid by the living beneficiary who gets the inheritance. And both federal and state governments can apply estate taxes, which are levied against the assets that are bequeathed.

Just five states apply an inheritance tax: New Jersey, Nebraska, Iowa, Kentucky and Pennsylvania. There are 12 states that have an estate tax: Washington, Oregon, Minnesota, Illinois, New York, Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Hawaii and the District of Columbia. Maryland collects both. As a result, there are 32 states that don’t collect death-related taxes: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

To better estimate and project the possible outcomes, you should consider an intergenerational planning meeting. There are some families that like the transparency of establishing a trust. This can minimize fighting and avoid probate. Trusts are also taxed differently than individuals. There’s more certainty about who will bear the costs.

There are families that gift assets, while an elderly or chronically ill person is still alive. These gifts can be subject to taxation, but there are exceptions for tuition and medical expenses. Gifts to children may also be excluded.

There’s no one-size-fits-all approach to transferring valuable or sentimental assets. You can list the most important people and causes in your life. If that list has people in other states, it will be even more important to prepare everyone for their role and responsibilities with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney.

If inheritance tax sounds intimidating, start small with updating the beneficiary forms on your bank accounts and employer-led retirement accounts. Organize documents, such as insurance information and house titles and deeds. Make them secure but accessible to those who might need them, if you’re unavailable.

Even if you’re socially distancing, many estate planning attorneys offer consultations via video conferencing. There’s no reason to delay another year to clarify your inheritance and estate plans.

Reference: Real Simple (Nov. 24, 2021) “Here’s Which States Collect Zero Estate or Inheritance Taxes”

Can I Avoid Password Problems for My Family in Estate Planning?

Barron’s recent article entitled “How to Ensure Heirs Avoid a Password-Protected Nightmare” explains that even financial planners may not consider until too late, how difficult it can be to recover and access a loved one’s accounts after they pass away. Since we are much more paperless with our finances, getting access to these accounts can be extremely hard for heirs, if they don’t have the right information. That’s because digital accounts are protected by encryption, multifactor authentication and federal data privacy laws.

Create a list of digital accounts and instructions on how to access them. The list should include not only financial assets but social media and other accounts. Digital accounts that loved ones or advisors may need to access following a death include:

  • Traditional financial accounts
  • Cryptocurrency accounts
  • Home payment and utilities accounts
  • Health insurance benefits
  • Email accounts
  • Social media
  • Smartphone accounts
  • Storage and file-sharing
  • Photo, music and video accounts
  • E-commerce accounts
  • Subscriptions to streaming services, such as Netflix, newspapers, music services; and
  • Loyalty/rewards programs for airlines and hotels.

Create a list of accounts, passwords and access information, keeping it up to date as information changes and letting a trusted person, such as an executor or estate planning attorney, know its location. Without a password list, it can be a nightmare.

Note that with every digital account, there’s a specific process that heirs must undertake to gain access, which should then be communicated clearly in your estate plan. Make a list of all digital assets and their access information, but don’t include this in the will itself, since the document is part of the public record in probate.

Being prepared well ahead of time can help your family avoid additional stress and delays as they probate your estate. It also ensures that they don’t forfeit significant financial assets concealed behind an impenetrable digital wall.

Reference: Barron’s (Dec. 15, 2021) “How to Ensure Heirs Avoid a Password-Protected Nightmare”

Why Do I Need an Estate Planning Attorney?

Pennsylvania News Today’s recent article entitled “Top 7 Reasons You Need An Estate Lawyer says that when you think about hiring a real estate lawyer, it might seem a little unsettling. However, let’s look at these reasons and why you might require them.

Estate Planning. You might want to consider this, but everyone passes away. It’s important that your family is ready for this. An experienced estate planning attorney can help you through this process and make certain everything is prepared. You should have a will. This document says what should happen with your assets when you pass away.

Trusts. A trust helps manage assets before someone dies. If you only have one or two assets you want given to someone, a will is adequate. However, if you own extensive property, ask an experienced estate planning attorney about setting up a trust. This will help your family keep living in your home, even after you’re gone without worrying about it being sold out from under them.

Probate. The probate court oversees the distribution of a person’s estate according to the instructions in their will. Probate can be a lengthy and expensive process, depending on where you live and the complexity of your assets or family situation. An estate planning attorney can help you with strategies to avoid it. A probate attorney can help you, so your family doesn’t have to worry about dealing with that stress or spending a vast amount of money necessary to do this correctly.

Guardianship. Guardianships are used when parents pass away and leave minor children behind. You can designate a guardian for your minor children in your will.

Elder Law Services. Seniors frequently need help managing finances and health care decisions. An experienced estate planning attorney or elder law attorney can help your loved ones through these complicated matters.

Estate Investments. An experienced attorney can also advise you on how to make smart investments for your family and can make certain that the transaction goes smoothly, and that any moves work with your estate planning objectives.

Tax Issues. Taxes may be owed on estates worth more than five million dollars. This can make it hard for heirs who don’t have access to this much money upfront. An estate planning attorney can help you avoid taxes, so your family doesn’t have to deal with this problem.

Estate planning is a process that should be started as soon as possible. You’ll need an estate planning lawyer who is knowledgeable and experienced to help.

Reference: Pennsylvania News Today (Nov. 11, 2021) “Top 7 Reasons You Need An Estate Lawyer”

How Can I Clean Up My Estate Plan?

Chicago Business Journal’s recent article entitled “8 steps to tidy up your estate plan now” gives you some items to think about when working through your affairs.

Make certain that your plan is accurate and up to date. Your basic documents, which include your will, health care directive and power of attorney, should be in place and up-to-date. Review them to confirm that they’re consistent with your wishes and the current laws.

Review your named beneficiaries and fiduciaries. Confirm that the names of designated beneficiaries and fiduciaries are accurate. Most assets will pass under your will or through trusts, other accounts such as retirement, or life insurance may pass directly to a named (or contingent) beneficiary. If your planning circumstances have changed since creating these designations, update them.

Review your life and property insurance coverage. Be sure that these policies offer adequate coverage and meet their intended purpose. As your wealth increases, the planning purposes behind a term policy for risk mitigation purposes or a whole life policy to ensure ample liquidity upon death may become unnecessary. However, if your assets’ value has grown, you may need to re-examine if the current property coverage is sufficient to minimize your increased potential liability.

Ensure that your beneficiaries have enough liquidity. The estate administration process can be slow and tiresome. It’s possible that a person may not have immediate access to liquidity after a spouse’s death, depending on how assets are titled. A temporary (but major) burden can be avoided, by confirming at least some liquidity will be titled in or directly available to your spouse after you have passed.

Locate and compile important information and account identification. A difficult step in estate administration is locating a decedent’s assets. Make this process easier for loved ones, by creating a list of your accounts, property of significant value, liabilities and contacts at each financial institution. Make the list easily accessible to your family or executor, and update it whenever opening or closing an account.

Review digital assets and online accounts. These assets are frequently overlooked as to access and ownership after death. Instead of divulging passwords or allowing account access, you can add a “digital assets clause” to your planning documents. This lets named parties access specific items within the bounds of accepted legal standards.

Draft a letter of wishes. This document allows you to fully express your intentions and hopes, as well as any explanations or instructions you want to impart to your loved ones.

Plan to review. Repeat the review process regularly and calendar a reminder to give yourself an annual financial and planning checkup.

Reference: Chicago Business Journal (Dec. 2, 2021) “8 steps to tidy up your estate plan now”

How Do I Give My Children the Summer Home?

There are many ways to pass property on to children, such as gifting a home to them while you are still alive, bequeathing it to the children at your death, or selling the home to your heirs. Each has legal and tax implications, so consider the possibilities and consult with an experienced estate planning attorney.

According to USA Today’s recent article entitled “How estate planning can help you pass down a house to your kids and give them a financial leg up,” as you put a plan in place, here are three options to review.

Gifting the property to children. One idea for a landlord with rental properties is to set up a revocable trust, where a trustee is responsible for liquidating houses as they became vacant, as long as the tenants were in good standing. This type of plan is built around the idea of maximizing the value to our children as beneficiaries and minimizing the impact on the trustee, while compensating them for their troubles. In addition, there may be tax implications. When you give a house or any other capital asset to your children while you’re alive, there’s significant capital gains tax issues because of the carryover cost basis. The use of a revocable trust avoids probate. It gives the children a step-up in basis and allows them to avoid capital gains tax.

Bequeathing a house to heirs. You can gift the family home to the children while you’re still alive, bequeath it to them at your death, or sell the residence to your heirs. A will is the standard way to bequeath property to children. Parents have the ownership and benefit of the property during their lifetime and when the last parent dies, the children get the home with the stepped-up basis (the increased value of the property when it passes to the inheritors). A revocable trust is another option to bequeath property. Placing a house into a trust avoids probate court and saves on estate taxes. You can say who gets the property and set guidelines on how they get the property. If one child wants the property, for example, you can state they have to buy out the other siblings. Note that adding the children to the deed of the house means they will each own the house. Therefore, if one child wants to live in the home, the others won’t be able to sell because that child won’t be in agreement. A revocable trust can prevent this from happening.

Selling the home to the children. Selling a home to an adult child may be wise, if the parents can no longer afford to maintain the property. However, there can also be pitfalls if the agreement isn’t well thought out. Parents should think about ways to save money when selling to their children, such as deeding the property to the kids and having them refinance the property and cash the parents out. If parents sell the home below fair market value to their children, they’re restricting their ability to have a retirement. This leaves little to help with retirement, since many people don’t have pensions and are only living on Social Security. There are also taxable gains consequences, if parents sell the home for more than they paid. The sale may result in higher property taxes to the purchaser in some situations.

Reference: USA Today (Dec. 7, 2021) “How estate planning can help you pass down a house to your kids and give them a financial leg up”

Do Young Adults Need Estate Planning?

Estate planning has an image problem, particularly with younger generations, says The Financial Post’s November 15th article entitled, “The case for estate planning in your 20s: At any age, some things are dear to you.”

If your 22 and don’t own a home, aren’t married and don’t have any dependent children, writing a will may seem like a waste of time and money. However, if you ask yourself “what do you want to see happen to your treasures if you pass away?

With no estate plan, a young adult will have no say over what happens to their treasures one day.

A recent survey shows very few young adults have an up-to-date will. It is less than 20%.

One reason for this poor result is that the term “estate planning” makes the process seem inaccessible or irrelevant for anyone not of a certain age or with significant assets.

However, considering your wishes earlier in life when your needs are simpler can make the process feel more natural and manageable when your life — and needs — become more complex as you get older.

The pandemic is a reminder that none of us knows for sure if we will have a later.

Drafting a will gives you the power to decide where everything from your savings and investments to your sentimental belongings and even your pets will go when you pass away.

Many people wait until they get married, buy a house, or have kids to draft a will. However, every adult needs one. Think about what would happen to your assets and property, if something happens to you.

People with spouses often mistakenly assume everything will go to that person, if they have no will in place.

However, state law will dictate exactly what assets will go to their spouse, and what might go to other relatives, such as their parents. If that’s not how you would have wanted it to go, you’re out of luck.

Leaving an up-to-date record of your wishes is the best thing you can do for your family.

Reference: Financial Post (Nov. 15, 2021) “The case for estate planning in your 20s: At any age, some things are dear to you”