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Is a Cup of Joe Help Healthy for Seniors?

Nutrition experts and medical researchers are finding all kinds of reasons to recommend indulging in a cup of joe— most based on the fact that coffee is the single greatest contributor to total antioxidant intake, says AARP’s article entitled “Five Surprising Health Benefits of Coffee.”

“Coffee is abundant in bioactive compounds that promote health,” says Kristin Kirkpatrick, a registered dietitian at Cleveland Clinic. As she explains, research published in The New England Journal of Medicine shows that these compounds may improve the gut microbiome (made up of healthy bacteria that aid in digestion and boost immunity) and reduce what’s called oxidative stress, which occurs when free radicals outnumber antioxidants in a way that leads to disease-causing cellular damage in the body. “The beans also have a deep rich hue, and we know that the deeper the color of a plant, the more benefits we can expect for health.”

However, moderation is the key. Three to five eight-ounce cups of coffee — or up to 400 mg of caffeine — per day can be part of a healthy diet. That is plain black coffee, not cappuccinos, lattes and macchiatos. Those are high in calories, sugar and fat. Let’s look at five health benefits of coffee that give you even more reason to enjoy your next cup.

  1. Lowers Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. A large review of studies published in Nutrition Reviews found that your risk of developing type 2 diabetes drops by 6% for each cup you drink per day. That’s because coffee is packed with phytochemicals that may act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory compounds, insulin-sensitivity boosters and more. The same goes for decaffeinated brews. A study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine found that those who drank two to three cups of filtered coffee a day — as opposed to unfiltered coffee (made with a pod, an espresso machine, or a French press) had a 60% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than people who drank less than one cup of filtered coffee a day. Those drinking unfiltered coffee didn’t see such a reduction in risk.
  2. Heart Protection. A review of three major studies published recently in Circulation: Heart Failure found that drinking one or more cups of plain caffeinated coffee a day may reduce your risk for heart failure. (Decaf didn’t yield the same benefits.) Among those without diagnosed heart disease, researchers found that drinking up to three cups of coffee a day was associated with a lower risk of stroke, death from cardiovascular disease and death from any cause.

If possible, though, drink filtered coffee because unfiltered coffee contains two compounds that raise LDL cholesterol in some people, and high levels of LDL cholesterol increase your risk for heart disease and stroke.

  1. Boosts brain health. Some research suggests that regular caffeine consumption may offer brain health benefits. In one study of people ages 65 to 84, published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, those who drank a cup or two of coffee daily had a lower rate of mild cognitive impairment than those who never or rarely consumed coffee. Other studies suggest coffee may also protect against Parkinson’s disease. However, some research shows that having over five or six cups a day may have an adverse health impact on the brain.
  2. Improves your mood. Drinking coffee may reduce your risk of depression by nearly one-third, according to research from Harvard Medical School. The effect may be related to coffee’s anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also has phytochemicals that feed the good bacteria in our guts. The good bacteria may produce or enhance other compounds that act on the brain and have beneficial effects on mood.
  3. Maximizes workouts. Downing a cup before exercise can make a difference in your workout because coffee improves circulation, endurance and muscular strength. It also may reduce pain, according to a review of research published in 2019 in Sports Medicine. However, it is important to recognize that coffee can also act as a diuretic.

Reference: AARP (Sep. 20, 2021) “Five Surprising Health Benefits of Coffee”

Link Possible between Diabetes, Dementia and Age

New research says those people who had type 2 diabetes for more than 10 years had more than twice the risk for developing dementia, as compared with those who were diabetes-free at age 70, according to Archana Singh-Manoux, PhD, of the Université de Paris in France.

MedPage Today’s recent article entitled “Diabetes, Dementia, and Age: What’s the Link?” reports that at age 70, every additional five years younger that a person was diagnosed with diabetes was linked to a 24% increased risk of incident dementia, even after adjustment for sociodemographic, health-related and clinical factors including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, body mass index and use of antidepressant or cardiovascular medications, among others.

This is equal to a dementia rate of 8.9 per 1,000 person-years among patients age 70 without diabetes versus a rate of 10 to 18.3 for those with diabetes, depending on age at onset:

  • Diabetes onset 5 years earlier: 10.0 per 1,000 person-years
  • Diabetes onset 6-10 years earlier: 13.0 per 1,000 person-years
  • Diabetes onset 10+ years earlier: 18.3 per 1,000 person-years

The strongest connection with incident dementia appeared to be younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes. Patients at age 55 who were diagnosed with diabetes within the past five years saw a twofold increased risk for incident dementia; those age 60 who were diagnosed with diabetes six to 10 years prior saw a similar twofold increased risk. However, late-onset diabetes wasn’t found to be tied to incident dementia. Prediabetes (fasting blood glucose of 110-125 mg/dL) also was not linked to risk of subsequent dementia. Singh-Manoux said this finding suggested that “a certain threshold of high glucose” might be needed to ultimately see hyperglycemia-induced brain injury.

However, cardiovascular comorbidities played into this link. Patients with diabetes who also had a stroke had a dramatically higher risk for dementia. Those with three heart conditions — stroke, coronary heart disease and heart failure – were at five times increased risk for subsequent dementia. Thus, these findings emphasize the importance of age at diabetes onset and cardiovascular comorbidities, when determining risk for dementia, the study authors said.

A few possible explanations could explain the connection between diabetes and dementia. “One hypothesis is that brain metabolic dysfunction is the primary driver of Alzheimer disease, highlighting the role of decreased transport of insulin through the blood-brain barrier, impairments in insulin signaling and consequently decreased cerebral glucose utilization,” they wrote. This idea was supported by findings from the 2019 SNIFF trial, which found some benefit with 40 IU of daily intranasal insulin for Alzheimer’s disease patients. The group also suggested that episodes of hypoglycemia, more often experienced by those with a longer diabetes duration, may increase the risk for dementia.

Reference: MedPage Today (April 27, 2021) “Diabetes, Dementia, and Age: What’s the Link?”

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