Estate Planning Blog Articles

Estate & Business Planning Law Firm Serving the Providence & Cranston, RI Areas

Should You Gift Stocks as Part of Your Estate Plan?

There are a number of ways to gift stock to family members, during your lifetime or after you die, according to a recent article from Think Advisor titled “Gifting Stock to Family Members: What You Need to Know.” The idea is simple, but how the gifting is done and what taxes may or may not need to be paid (and by whom) requires a closer look.

A gift of stock today is made through an electronic transfer from your account to the investment account of the recipient of the shares. The rules for gifting shares of stocks also apply to gifting ETFs and mutual funds.

Lifetime gifts. Stock gifts can be made in place of giving cash. The annual gift limit of $15,000 per person or $30,000 for a joint gift with your spouse, applies, and the value of the stock on the day of the transfer constitutes the amount of the gift.

If you gift in excess of the annual gifting limits, this takes a bite out of your lifetime gift and tax exemption, which as of this writing is $11.7 million per person for federal estate taxes. That’s something to keep in mind when deciding on your gifting strategy.

Using a trust for gifting. Instead of giving cash to a family member, you could use a trust and transfer your shares into the trust, with the family member as a beneficiary of the trust. The treatment of tax and cost basis issues will depend upon the type of trust used. Your estate planning attorney will be able to help you determine what type of trust to use.

Transfer on death. You can also gift stocks to others through your will, through a transfer on death designation in a brokerage account, through a beneficiary designation in a trust if the securities are held there, or through an inherited IRA. Taxes and cost basis will vary, depending upon your circumstances.

Taxes and gifting stock. There are no taxes and no tax implications at the time stocks are gifted to someone, but there are some issues to know before making the gift.

When stocks are given to a relative, there is no tax impact for the donor or the person receiving the stock, and as long as the value of the stock is within the annual gifting limits, the donor does not have to do anything. If the gift value exceeds the limit, the person has to file a gift tax return.

The recipient of the stock shares doesn’t owe capital gains taxes, until the stocks are sold. At that time, the cost basis and holding period of the person who gifted the shares will need to be known in order to determine the tax liability.

If the stock is gifted at a price below the donor’s cost basis and sold at a loss, the recipient’s cost basis and holding period is determined by the fair market value of the stock on the date of the gift. However, if the price of the shares increases above the donor’s original cost basis, their cost basis and holding period need to be known to calculate the recipient’s capital gain.

Gifting to children or grandchildren. Gifting shares of appreciated stock to children and grandchildren can make sense for the donors, since they are taking the value of the stock out of their estate and gifting it to a child or grandchild in a lower tax bracket. The recipient or their parents could sell the shares and pay a lower capital gains rate, or even no capital gains taxes. However, if the recipient is a current or future college student, or the student’s parent, the gift could reduce eligibility for need-based financial aid. The stock may need to be reported as an asset belonging to the student or the parent, increasing their income when they are received and/or when they are sold.

Speak with your estate planning attorney before gifting stock or cash to family members. There will be sensible ways to be generous without creating any issues for recipients.

Reference: Think Advisor (Jan. 25, 2021) “Gifting Stock to Family Members: What You Need to Know”

estate plan goals

Gifting Can Help Estate Plans and Heirs Reach Goals

The applicable exclusion amount for gift/estate tax purposes is $11.58 million in 2020, a level that makes incorporating gifting into estate plans very attractive for high net-worth families. If a donor’s taxable gift—one that does not qualify for the annual, medical or education exclusion—is in excess of this amount, or if the value of the donor’s aggregate taxable gifts is higher than this amount, the federal gift tax will be due by April 15 of the following year. The current gift tax rate is 40%.

This presents an opportunity, as described in detail in the article “The Case for Gifting Now (or At Least Planning for the Possibility” from The National Law Review.

If the exclusion is used during one’s lifetime, it reduces the amount of the exemption available at death to shelter property from the estate tax. With proper planning, spouses may currently gift or die with assets totally as much as $23.16 million, with no gift or federal estate tax.

To gain perspective on how high this exclusion is, in 2000-2001, the applicable exclusion amount was $675,000.

The exclusion amount will automatically decrease to approximately $6.5 million on January 1, 2026, unless changes are made by Congress before that time to continue the current exclusion amount. Now is a good time to have a conversation with your estate planning attorney about making gifts in advance of the scheduled decrease and/or any changes that may occur in the future. The following are reasons why this exemption may be lowered:

  • Trillions of dollars in federal stimulus spending necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the severe economic downturn in the U.S.
  • Past precedent of passing tax legislation mid-year and applying it retroactively to January 1.
  • A possible change in party control for the presidency and/or the Senate
  • The use of the budget reconciliation process to pass changes to taxes.

In the 100-plus year history of the estate tax, the exemption has never gone down. However, the exemption has also never been this high. The possibility of a compressed timeframe for family business owners and wealthy individuals to implement lifetime gifts before any legislative change may make a tidal wave of gifting transactions challenging between now and December 31, 2020. Now is the time to start planning and take action to utilize the exclusion amount.

Reference: The National Review (Aug. 20, 2020) “The Case for Gifting Now (or At Least Planning for the Possibility”

Join Our eNewsletter

Recent Posts
Categories