Estate Planning Blog Articles

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How to Plan in a Time of Uncertainty

There’s a saying in estate planning circles that the only people who pay estate taxes are those who don’t plan not to pay estate taxes. While this doesn’t cover every situation, there is a lot of truth to it. A recent article from Financial Advisor entitled “Estate Planning In This Particular Time of Uncertainty” offers strategies and estate planning techniques to be considered during these volatile times.

Gifting Assets into Irrevocable Trusts to Benefit Family Members. If done correctly, this serves to remove the current value and all future appreciation of these assets from your estate. With the federal estate tax exemption ending at the end of 2025, the exemption will drop from $12.06 million per person to nearly half that amount.

Combine this with a time of volatile asset prices and it becomes fairly obvious: this would be a good time to take investments with a lowered value out of the individual owner’s hands and gift them into an irrevocable trust. The lower the value of the asset at the time of the gift, the less the amount of the lifetime exemption that needs to be used. If assets are expected to recover and appreciate, this strategy makes even more sense.

Spousal Limited Access Trust (SLAT). This may be a good time for a related technique, the SLAT, an irrevocable trust created by one spouse to benefit the other and often, the couple’s children. Access to income and principal is created during the spouse’s lifetime. It can even be drafted as a dynasty trust. Assets can be gifted out of the estate to the trust and while the grantor (the person creating the trust) cannot be a beneficiary, their family can. Couples may also create reciprocating SLATs, where each is the beneficiary of the other’s trust, as long as they are careful not to create duplicate trusts, which have been found invalid by courts. Talk with an experienced estate planning attorney about how a SLAT may work for you and your spouse.

What about interest rates? A Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (GRAT), where the grantor contributes assets and enjoys a fixed annuity stream for the life of the trust, may be advantageous now. At the end of the trust term, remaining assets are distributed to family members or a trust for their benefit. To avoid a gift tax on the calculated remainder, due when the trust is created, most GRATs are “zeroed out,” that is, the present value of the annuity stream to the grantor is equal to the amount of the initial funding of the trust. Since you get back what’s been put in, no taxable gift occurs. The lower the interest rate, the higher the value of the income stream. The grantor can take a lower annuity amount and with decent appreciation of assets in the trust, there will be a larger amount as a remainder for heirs. Interest rates need to be considered when looking into GRATs.

Qualified Personal Residence Trust (QPRT) is a trust used to transfer a primary residence to beneficiaries with minimal gift tax consequences. The grantor retains the right to live in the house at no charge for a certain period of time. After the time period ends, the property and any appreciation in value passes to beneficiaries. The valuation for the value of the initial transfer into the trust for gift tax purposes is determined by a calculation relying heavily on interest rates. In this case, a higher interest rate results in a lower present value of the remainder and a lower gift value when the trust is created.

Reference: Financial Advisor (July 8, 2022) “Estate Planning In This Particular Time of Uncertainty”

Will Inheritance and Gift Taxes Change in 2021?

Uncertainty is driving many wealth transfers, with gifting taking the lead for many wealthy families, reports the article “No More Gift Tax Exemption?” from Financial Advisor. For families who have already used up a large amount or even all of their exemptions, there are other strategies to consider.

Making gifts outright or through a trust is still possible, even if an individual or couple used all of their gift and generation skipping transfer tax exemptions. Gifts and generation skipping transfer tax exemption amounts are indexed for inflation, increasing to $11.7 million in 2021 from $11.58 million in 2020. Individuals have $120,000 additional gift and generation-skipping transfer tax exemptions that can be used this year.

Annual exclusion gifts—individuals can make certain gifts up to $15,000 per recipient, and couples can give up to $30,000 per person. This does not count towards gift and estate tax exemptions.

Don’t forget about Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (GRAT) options. The GRAT is an irrevocable trust, where the grantor makes a gift of property to it, while retaining a right to an annual payment from the trust for a specific number of years. GRATS can also be used for concentrated positions and assets expected to appreciate that significantly reap a number of advantages.

A Sale to a Grantor Trust takes advantage of the differences between the income and transfer tax treatment of irrevocable trusts. The goal is to transfer anticipated appreciation of assets at a reduced gift tax cost. This may be timely for those who have funded a trust using their gift tax exemption, as this strategy usually requires funding of a trust before a sale.

Intra-family loans permit individuals to make loans to family members at lower rates than commercial lenders, without the loan being considered a gift. A family member can help another family member financially, without incurring additional gift tax. A bona fide creditor relationship, including interest payments, must be established.

It’s extremely important to work with a qualified estate planning attorney when implementing tax planning strategies, especially this year. Tax reform is on the horizon, but knowing exactly what the final changes will be, and whether they will be retroactive, is impossible to know. There are many additional techniques, from disclaimers, QTIPs and formula gifts, that an experienced estate planning attorney may consider when planning to protect a family legacy.

Reference: Financial Advisor (April 1, 2021) “No More Gift Tax Exemption?”

trusts

Pre-Election Estate Planning Includes a Vast Variety of Trusts

You might remember a flurry of activity in advance of the 2016 presidential election, when concerns about changes to the estate tax propelled many people to review their estate plans. In 2020, COVID-19 concerns have added to pre-presidential election worries. A recent article from Kiplinger, “Pre-Election Estate Planning Moves for High Net-Worth Families,” describes an extensive selection of trusts that can are used to protect wealth, and despite the title, not all of these trusts are just for the wealthy.

The time to make these changes is now, since there have been many instances where tax changes are made retroactively—something to keep in mind. The biggest opportunity is the ability to gift up to $11.58 million to another person free of transfer tax. However, there are many more.

Spousal Lifetime Access Trust (SLAT) The SLAT is an irrevocable trust created to benefit a spouse funded by a gift of assets, while the grantor-spouse is still living. The goal is to move assets out of the grantor spouse’s name into a trust to provide financial assistance to the spouse, while sheltering property from the spouse’s future creditors and taxable estate.

Beneficiary Defective Inheritor’s Trust (BDIT) The BDIT is an irrevocable trust structured so the beneficiary can manage and use assets but the assets are not included in their taxable estate.

Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (GRAT) The GRAT is also an irrevocable trust. The GRAT lets the grantor freeze the value of appreciating assets and transfer the growth at a discount for federal gift tax purposes. The grantor contributes assets in the trust and retains the right to receive an annuity from the trust, while earning a rate of return as specified by the IRS. GRATs are best in a low interest-rate environment because the appreciation of assets over the rate goes to the beneficiaries and at the end of the term of the trust, any leftover assets pass to the designated beneficiaries with little or no tax impact.

Gift or Sale of Interest in Family Partnerships. Family Limited Partnerships are used to transfer assets through partnership interests from one generation to the next. Retaining control of the property is part of the appeal. The partnerships may also be transferred at a discount to net asset value, which can reduce gift and estate tax liability.

Charitable Lead Trust (CLT). The CLT lets a grantor make a gift to a charitable organization while they are alive, while creating tax benefits for the grantor or their heirs. An annuity is paid to a charity for a set term, and when the term expires, the balance of the trust is available for the trust beneficiary.

Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT) The CRT is kind of like a reverse CLT. In a CRT, the grantor receives an income stream from the trust for a certain number of years. At the end of the trust term, the charitable organization receives the remaining assets. The grantor gets an immediate income tax charitable deduction when the CRT is funded, based on the present value of the estimated assets remaining after the end of the term.

These are a sampling of the types of trusts used to protect family’s assets. Your estate planning attorney will be able to determine if a trust is right for you and your family, and which one will be most advantageous for your situation.

Reference: Kiplinger (Aug. 16, 2020) “Pre-Election Estate Planning Moves for High Net-Worth Families”

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