Estate Planning Blog Articles

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What Taxes are Due When Children Inherit Home?

The first issue to address is whether the will addresses how inheritance taxes will be paid, says nj.com recent article entitled “My adult kids inherited a home. What taxes are due?” The mortgage may say the estate itself will pay it before anything is paid out to beneficiaries, or it may not mention anything.

Iowa, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania are the only states that impose an inheritance tax, which is a tax on what you receive as the beneficiary of an estate.

Maryland is the one state that has both an inheritance tax and an estate tax. Its inheritance tax is up to 10%. As to the others, Nebraska’s inheritance tax can be as high as 18%. Kentucky and New Jersey both taxes inheritances at up to 16%. Iowa’s inheritance tax is up to 15%, as is Pennsylvania’s.

Spouses and certain other heirs are usually excluded by the state from paying inheritance taxes.

A child may have an issue if there’s not enough liquidity in the estate, separate from the house to pay the taxes. If the beneficiaries plan to keep the home, they’d need to take an additional mortgage.  They’d also need to find enough cash to pay the inheritance taxes due.

In the example above, if the deed is transferred to a niece and nephew, the executor should hire a licensed real estate appraiser and pay for a date of death appraisal on the property. That appraisal will determine how much capital gains was exempted at the sister’s passing. It will also establish a new basis for capital gains purposes for the niece and nephew.

If the heirs simply do nothing and move into the house, the inheritance tax will come due. In New Jersey, it’s due eight months from the date of death.

If the inheritance tax isn’t paid, liability for the unpaid tax will attach to the executor personally, often in the form of a certificate of debt attached to some asset belonging to the executor, like his or her house.

To make sure this is handled correctly, consider speaking to an experienced estate planning attorney, who can walk you through the process.

Reference: nj.com (June 14, 2021) “My adult kids inherited a home. What taxes are due?”

Would Life Estate Have an Impact Taxes on an Inherited Home?

Nj.com’s recent article entitled “My mom added us to her deed and then died. Do we owe taxes?” explains that assuming mom retained an interest in the house or lived in the house after putting her children’s names on the deed, the IRS considers the property to be part of the taxable estate of the mother.

That is a critical point, when it comes to the amount of tax the children may have to pay.

She most likely kept a “life estate” in the home. This is where a person owns the property only through the duration of their lifetime. It is called “a tenant for life” or a “life tenant.”

A life estate is a restriction on the property because it prevents the beneficiary (usually the children) from selling the property that produces the income before the beneficiary’s death.

When the mom passes away, the life estate automatically stops and the children now have all of the rights associated with the property. As to income tax, when the parent dies, the property receives a “step up” in basis to the date of death value.

If the mom in our example had a life estate, the children would receive a “step up” in basis to the fair market value of the property on the date of death.

That means that the capital gain that would be taxed to the children would be the difference between the fair market value of the property when their mother died and the net proceeds of the sale.

Retaining the life estate can help a child avoid the capital gains tax more effectively than a simple transfer of the property outright to the child.

Talk to an experienced estate planning attorney about life estates and taxes, when you inherit a home.

Reference: nj.com (Feb. 18, 2021) “My mom added us to her deed and then died. Do we owe taxes?”

What are My Taxes on a House I Inherited?

Say your mom transferred the deed of the house over to you in November 2014 with a life estate for her. She dies in 2016. Mom paid about $18,000 for the home in 1960. This is the son’s primary and only residence. He wants to put the house on the market for $375,000. Will he have to pay capital gains tax?

The son probably won’t owe any tax on the sale of the house. Nj.com’s recent article entitled “Will sale of inherited home cause a tax liability?” explains that the profit can be calculated, by subtracting the cost basis from the sales price. That cost basis is the original purchase price plus any capital improvements.

As far as the son’s repairs, he should look at capital improvements, which is somewhat nebulous. The IRS definition is “add to the value of your home, prolong its useful life, or adapt it to new uses.” Any improvements must be evident when you sell. If you replace a few shingles on your roof, it is a repair. However, if you replace the whole roof, that’s a capital improvement. If you don’t have receipts for the capital improvements, you can use reasonable estimates. However, the IRS may not accept them, if you’re audited.

Inherited property receives a “step up” in cost basis to the fair market value as of the date of death. This means that the original purchase price of the property and any capital improvements prior to the date of death are no longer relevant.

If a property is sold after it is inherited, the profit is calculated by deducting the date of death value from the sales price with an adjustment for any capital improvements made to the property after the date of death.

As far as the mom’s life estate in the home, this is a special type of real estate ownership, where the owner retains the exclusive right to live in the property for as long as she’s alive. However, a remainder interest is given to someone else, like a child. This “remainderman” automatically becomes the owner of the property upon the death of the life tenant.

Even with the life estate, the home receives a full step-up in cost basis upon the death of the life estate owner. The first $250,000 of profit on the sale of a primary residence is also exempt from tax, as long as the seller owned the home and lived in the home for two out of the last five years.

As such, the basis of the home will be the fair market value of the home in 2016, when the son inherited it as the remainderman of the life estate deed, plus any capital improvements he made since then.

In this situation, because the son has owned and lived in the house for two out of the last five years, he can exclude up to $250,000 of profit. With estimated sale price of $375,000, he shouldn’t owe any capital gains tax.

Reference: nj.com (Dec. 31, 2020) “Will sale of inherited home cause a tax liability?”

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