Estate Planning Blog Articles

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How will an Apple Watch Help Study Dementia?

AI’s recent article entitled “Biogen will use Apple Watch to study symptoms of dementia,” says that this study will last for multiple years, and will launch later this year. People from a wide gamut of ages and cognitive performance levels will be asked to take part by Biogen.

They hope to find out if wearable devices like the Apple Watch could be used for long-term cognitive performance monitoring.

The ultimate objective is to develop digital biomarkers for cognitive performance monitoring over time, which may help identify early signs of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

There are now serious delays in recognizing declines in cognitive health. This impacts about 15 to 20% of adults over the age of 65. The subtle onset of symptoms, including being easily distracted and memory loss, may take months or even years before it is observed as a cognitive decline by healthcare providers.

“The successful development of digital biomarkers in brain health would help address the significant need to accelerate patient diagnoses and empower physicians and individuals to take timely action,” said Biogen CEO Michel Vounatsos. “For healthcare systems, such advancements in cognitive biomarkers from large-scale studies could contribute significantly to prevention and better population-based health outcomes, and lower costs to health systems.”

Apple believes that this study “can help the medical community better understand a person’s cognitive performance, by simply having them engage with their Apple Watch and iPhone,” said Apple COO Jeff Williams. “We’re looking forward to learning about the impact our technology can have in delivering better health outcomes through improved detection of declining cognitive health,” he said.

The Apple Watch has been used for a number of health studies in the past, which are done with the research app. There have been studies to detect heart issues before they become an issue, as well as a hearing study monitoring ambient sound volumes, and activity and movement.

The dementia study is designed to ensure consumer privacy, control and transparency. It will emphasize data security.

The participants must complete a detailed consent from listing the collected data types and how they are used and shared before taking part. They can withdraw at any time.

Reference: AI (Jan. 11, 2021) “Biogen will use Apple Watch to study symptoms of dementia”

What Do I Need to Know as a Caregiver for the Elderly?

Not everyone is cut out for assisting older people because the job requires a unique skillset and, more importantly, empathy.

Big Easy’s recent article entitled “6 Things to Consider as a Caregiver for the Elderly” says it can be hard to understand that a senior has become dependent on others, and being assisted in everyday tasks may even lead to compromises in their privacy. This can put a senior in stressful conditions that lead to anxiety. In that case, hiring a professional caregiver for the elderly may be the best option.

However, no matter your training, caring for an older person can still be challenging. Consider these six things to develop the best possible relationship with the elderly and to provide the best care.

Compassion. Being compassionate helps develop a better connection to the elderly person. This can frequently solve many behavioral problems and can make for a pleasant caregiving environment. Most older people have some physical or mental disability that keeps them from being independent. In some situations, being abandoned by their loved ones creates even more emotional damage. To help, be empathetic and kind to them in these difficult times. This can significantly help to decrease the emotional pain that accompanies old age and illness. Being compassionate is one of the most effective ways of delivering the best care possible in these situations.

Communication. If you have the ability to have natural and comfortable conversations with elderly patients, you can develop a tighter emotional bond with them. Healthy communication and conversations also can distract a senior from things that may be troubling them, which will not only benefit the patient but will also help you carry out your tasks more easily. You may also be called upon to interact with other family members or doctors, so good communication skills are required.

Safety. Safety is vital for the elderly, and the slightest negligence can become a matter of life and death for them. The most common types of injuries for older people are attributed to falls. It is also even more dangerous because their bones are weak and don’t heal quickly. Use extreme care when assisting seniors in slippery areas, like the bathroom. Take precautions, such as de-cluttering the house and eliminating tripping hazards. Most importantly, keep them under constant observation, especially those with mental illnesses.

Hygiene. Maintaining quality hygiene can be a challenge, especially if people are shy or want their privacy. Take bathing as an example: it’s not surprising that the elderly are embarrassed, when caregivers have to bathe them. Even so, you are tasked with maintaining their hygiene. If you don’t, it can lead to more health-related issues.

Medications. Most seniors take medication, some of which produce side effects, such as nausea or dizziness. As a caregiver, you should make certain that they are taking their medicines on time and watch for side-effects in the case of an emergency. Review their medications and administer the prescribed dosage at the right times yourself. This will also help those who forget to take their medicines without prompting.

You may have several challenging times throughout your career as a caregiver for the elderly, but empathy and compassion will help you considerably. You will create a better job experience and help the elderly with a very difficult phase of their life.

Reference: Big Easy (Dec. 10, 2020) “6 Things to Consider as a Caregiver for the Elderly”

What Should I Know, If I Need to Take an Elderly Person to the Doctor?

First, know and understand the rules in the pandemic.

AARP’s August 17 article entitled “4 Things to Know When Taking a Loved One to the Doctor During COVID-19” provides four other things to consider as you plan doctors’ appointments.

Is there an urgent need for the appointment? A caregiver of a senior may be tempted to schedule some appointments. However, doctors are trying to return to normal, and even with precautions in place, they may not want to see your senior for a non-urgent visit. Right now, most doctors don’t advise patients to come into their office for routine follow-ups. See if the visit can be postponed or ask the medical office about a virtual visit on Zoom.

Do you know the office’s visitor policy? If the doctor asks you to bring your loved one to the doctor’s office, look at its visitor policy before you go. With COVID-19, most offices have very strict policies and may only permit scheduled patients in the office. Some will make exceptions for a senior’s caregiver if needed, but they may request that once the patient is checked in, the caregiver wait in the car.

What are the facility’s precautions against COVID-19? In most health care facilities, as well as in imaging centers, doctors’ offices, hospitals with outpatient services, ERs and labs, there’s intense facility cleaning and sanitizing, universal masking, physical distancing and hand sanitizing. Patients are typically met at the door with a thermometer and a COVID-19 questionnaire. Other precautions include removing magazines to protect against the risk of virus transmission and requiring all staff to wear surgical masks.

What preparation is needed for an in-person appointment? Both the caregiver and patient should wear masks and get there punctually. When you make the appointment and it is prep for a scheduled surgery or procedure, ask if the patient needs a COVID-19 test.

You should also bring a list of medications with dosages and frequencies (and the number of refills left.). It is also helpful to have on hand a medical history that includes symptoms, dates and durations. This can be valuable in completing the COVID-19 questionnaire and to get more from the appointment. You should also have a list of questions for the doctor.

When you leave the appointment, be certain: (i) all of the patient’s questions have been answered; (ii) review the instructions for home care provided in the treatment plan; and (iii) schedule the next appointment, if a follow-up is needed.

Reference: AARP (Aug. 17, 2020) “4 Things to Know When Taking a Loved One to the Doctor During COVID-19”

living space design

What Does Research Say about Senior Well-Being and Living Space Design?

Design’s Impact on Seniors’ Perceptions of Wellness from New York-based architecture firm Perkins Eastman, reviewed the responses of 540 older adults living in three West Coast senior living communities to see how they looked at their own physical, social/emotional and intellectual wellness.

McKnight’s Senior Living’s recent article entitled  “90% of senior living residents say design integral to well-being: study” explains that the study started many years before the impact of COVID-19 on the senior living sector. It included responses from residents living in three life plan communities, also known as continuing care retirement communities: MonteCedro in Altadena, CA; Spring Lake Village in Santa Rosa, CA; and Rockwood Retirement Communities in Spokane, WA. The three communities were chosen due to their focus on whole-person wellness and specific design strategies to support that objective.

The residents of these communities completed questionnaires between 2015 and 2017 at certain points of pre-construction, post-construction, and occupancy. The study looked at these wellness strategies used by designers:

  • Autonomy, control and choice
  • Design in variety
  • Promotion of use through location and access
  • Patterns of movement
  • Natural connections
  • Touch of serendipity
  • Degrees of privacy
  • Layers of light
  • Sensory experiences; and
  • Feelings of home.

The results showed that more than 90% felt that design strategies used in their communities were essential to their overall well-being. Research showed that residents’ perceptions of wellness positively increased or held steady after they began using new or renovated spaces in their communities. The aspects that exhibited the most improvement in physical wellness in all communities was access to physical wellness resources and exercising regularly.  In addition, social/emotional wellness, access to resources, a strong support system, and a sense of connection and belonging also improved across all three communities.

The residents’ access to intellectual wellness resources were seen as better, and there were more opportunities for residents to expand their knowledge and explore the creative arts.

The authors of the study said the design strategies in the study should be a “starting point” upon which designers and providers can expand, while developing more strategies and approaches to support “whole-person wellness”.

Reference: McKnight’s Senior Living (Sep. 8, 2020) “90% of senior living residents say design integral to well-being: study”

elder care

Does the Netherlands have the Right Idea for Elder Care?

Is the Netherlands getting its money’s worth from its spending, and are they protecting elders from the impoverishing effects of out-of-pocket spending, and their children from the burdens of caregiving?

Forbes’ recent article entitled “Can The Dutch Example Help Us Improve Long-Term Care And Manage Its Costs? Maybe” says that when investigating further, it’s not hard to find articles praising the Dutch approach to eldercare. Its “Dementia Village” has received a lot of press for its patient-friendly approach of creating a secure, “Truman Show”-style community where seniors can spend time at the town square or shopping at the grocery store. They also live in individual homes styled in the manner of their youth.

An expert on eldercare at Access Health International described her experiences in a visit to the country. She said that the organizations she visited focused on well-being, wellness and lifestyle choices. They focused less on the medical aspects of chronic and long-term care. The groups didn’t consider themselves to be part of the curative branch of the healthcare system—these healthcare professionals only focused on patients’ individual capabilities, freedom, autonomy and wellness.

The article took a look at the FICA-equivalent taxes in the Netherlands with data from the Social Security Programs Throughout the World, at the Social Security website. For old age, disability and survivor’s benefits (the U.S. Social Security-equivalent), the Dutch contribute 20% of their pay, to a max of $37,700. Employers pay 6.27% of pay, up to $60,600. For medical, the system is a hybrid one. The workers buy private insurance. Employers pay 6.90% of covered payroll (with no limit), and the government subsidizes the benefits. As far as long-term care, workers pay 9.65% of earnings up to $37,700.

A World Bank consultant gave a more detailed review of the Dutch system in a 2017 paper entitled, Aging and Long-Term Care Systems: A Review of Finance and Governance Arrangements in Europe, North America and Asia-Pacific.

The first social insurance benefit for long-term care, the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act was implemented in 1968. In 2014, 5% of Dutch people received benefits through the program, but the cost of the system had increased. At first, the Dutch government initially tried to control costs with budget caps, until a 1999 ruling outlawed these. As a result, costs grew from EUR 15.9 billion in 2001 to EUR 27.8 in 2014, even though there were cost-control efforts, like increases in copays required from middle- and upper-income families and tightening of eligibility criteria.

In 2015, the Dutch government totally overhauled its system with the Long-term Care Act. This law had a new administrative structure, changes so government pays for more services, more home support instead of nursing homes when possible, and other cuts and freezes in reimbursement rates.

As a consequence, the English-language site Dutch News reported in 2017 that “At least 40% of Dutch nursing homes and home nursing organizations are making a loss and overall profitability across the healthcare sector has more than halved, according to accountancy group EY,” as reimbursement rates drop and (since the less-frail elderly are more often being cared for at home) nursing home residents need more help.

Elder care isn’t free of charge, but the rates are based on income and, at a maximum, are still much lower than American private-pay nursing home or home care costs ($2,500/month). Therefore, copayments by families are 8.7% of total spending. Thus, taxes are higher, but the direct out-of-pocket costs of care in the Netherlands are substantially lower than in the U.S.

The Netherlands’ systematized provision of home care and attempts to provide home-like nursing homes are appealing. However, it’s still not known if the country’s 2015 reform will control costs to ensure its programs are sustainable in the long run. Further, the fact that this reform was required supports the notion that an expansive government program isn’t as simple as its proponents would like it to be.

Reference: Forbes (Sep. 1, 2020) “Can The Dutch Example Help Us Improve Long-Term Care And Manage Its Costs? Maybe.”

granny cams

Can Senior Care Facilities Use ‘Granny Cams’?

A bill in Georgia that would permit residents in assisted living communities and personal care homes to install electronic monitoring equipment in their rooms has been met with resistance. There are some members of the long-term care industry the oppose HB 849, so-called “granny cam” legislation due to privacy issues. The legislation—which also covers nursing homes—was introduced by state representative Demetrius Douglas (D-Stockbridge). Douglas contends that the technology is needed now more than ever.

Several states have similar laws.

McKnight’s Senior Living’s recent article entitled “Georgia Legislature blocks ‘granny cam’ legislation; industry reps raised concerns” reports that Tony Marshall, president and CEO of the Georgia Health Care Association, says he previously spoke with Douglas and other legislators about the granny cam bill and his concerns. He said concerns were also shared by the state ombudsman and various advocacy groups.

“Surveillance cameras observe — they do not protect — and the use of such cameras in a healthcare setting significantly increases the risk of violating HIPAA [Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act], federal and state privacy regulations,” Marshall told McKnight’s Senior Living. “We also have concerns related to several other technical aspects of the bill.”

Marshall also noted that the Georgia Health Care Association supports “transparency and measures to ensure that the highest quality of care is being provided to elderly Georgians,” while also “valuing a home-like setting and honoring each resident’s dignity and right to privacy.”

He said his association believes that true quality improvement happens by collaborative efforts with legislators and other players to bolster the ability of nursing centers to recruit and retain a skilled, competent workforce. This also will “further programs designed to educate healthcare professionals, consumers and communities-at-large on abuse prevention and identification,” Marshall said.

The bill allows electronic monitoring equipment to be put in a resident’s rooms in assisted living communities, personal care homes, skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care homes. The resident would be required to provide written consent from any roommate and notify the facility before installing a device. A sign must also to be posted to let visitors and staff members know about the granny cam. The facility also wouldn’t be permitted to access any video or audio recording from the resident’s device.

Douglas said the pandemic has shown the need for cameras and noted that other states have adopted similar measures, according to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution. The state legislator remarked that he introduced the legislation after being contacted during the lockdown by family members, who said they weren’t told about outbreaks or immediately told when an elderly family member died.

There are six states—Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Utah—that have laws requiring assisted living communities to accommodate resident requests to install electronic monitoring equipment in their rooms.

New Jersey also has a “Safe Care Cam” program that loans such equipment to healthcare consumers, including families of assisted living and nursing home residents.

Reference: McKnight’s Senior Living (Sep. 15, 2020) “Georgia Legislature blocks ‘granny cam’ legislation; industry reps raised concerns”

healthcare information

How to Keep Track of Mom’s Healthcare Information if She Gets Sick or Injured

It’s common for seniors to have several chronic medical conditions that must be closely monitored and for which they take any number of prescription medications. Family caregivers usually are given a crash course in nursing and managing medical care, when they start helping an aging loved one. The greatest lesson is that organization is key, which is especially true when a senior requires urgent medical care.

Physicians encounter countless patients and families who struggle to convey important medical details to health care staff, according to The (Battle Ground, WA ) Reflector’s recent article titled “The emergency medical file every caregiver should create.”

A great solution is to create a packet that contains information that caregivers should have. Here’s what should be in this emergency file:

Medications. Make a list of all your senior’s prescription and over-the-counter medications, with dosages and how frequently they’re taken.

Allergies. Note if your loved one is allergic to any medications, additives, preservatives, or materials, like latex or adhesives. You should also note the severity of their reaction to each of these.

Physicians. Put down the name and contact info for the patient’s primary care physician, as well as any regularly seen specialists, like a cardiologist or a neurologist.

Medical Conditions. Provide the basics about your senior’s serious physical and mental conditions, along with their medical history. This can include diabetes, a pacemaker, dementia, falls and any heart attacks or strokes. You should also list pertinent dates.

Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Order. If a senior doesn’t want to receive CPR or intubation if they go into cardiac or respiratory arrest, include a copy of their state-sponsored and physician-signed DNR order or Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) form.

Medical Power of Attorney. Keep a copy of a medical power of attorney (POA) in the packet. This is important for communicating with medical staff and making health care decisions. You should also check that the contact information is included on or with the form.

Recent Lab Results. Include copies of your senior’s most recent lab tests, which can be very helpful for physicians who are trying to make a diagnosis and decide on a course of treatment without a complete medical history. This can include the most recent EKGs, complete blood counts and kidney function and liver function tests.

Insurance Info. Provide copies of both sides of all current insurance cards. Include the Medicare Supplement Insurance (Medigap) and Medicare Prescription Drug Plan (Part D) cards (if applicable). This will help ensure that the billing is done correctly.

Photo ID. Emergency rooms must treat patients, even if they don’t have identification or insurance information However, many urgent care centers require a picture ID to see patients. You should also include a copy of their driver’s license in the folder.

Once you have all the records, assemble the folder and put it in an easily accessible location. Give the packet to paramedics responding to 911 calls. It should also be brought to any visits at an urgent care clinic.

Reference: The (Battle Ground, WA ) Reflector (Sep. 14, 2020) “The emergency medical file every caregiver should create”

keep elderly safe

New Survey Conducted on Keeping the Elderly Safe in the Pandemic

Those in our oldest generations, who were recently surveyed, were found to be more distrustful of senior living and care operators than younger generations.

Nearly half (49.5%) of baby boomers said they don’t trust senior living and care providers to keep residents safe, while 43.9% of the Silent Generation reported the same distrust.

Younger people are more trusting: 42.3% of Generation X reported distrust, 31.8% of millennials and 38.2% of Generation Z.

McKnight Senior Living’s recent article entitled “41% don’t trust assisted living, nursing homes to keep residents safe during pandemic: survey” notes that 43.1% of baby boomers responded that they trust facilities “somewhat,” as did 51.4% of the Silent Generation respondents.

Some of this mistrust may come from the extensive media coverage of coronavirus deaths in nursing homes because senior residents are especially vulnerable to the illness.

Some say that it goes further than that: the quarantine and social distancing has added to families’ stress and anxiety over the safety and mental well-being of the seniors who live in these facilities because they aren’t able to visit as often as they want.

An online survey from ValuePenguin.com and LendingTree of more than 1,100 Americans recently found that COVID-19 has generated a rush of loneliness and worry among older adults.

According to the results, 36% of older adults feel lonelier than ever. In addition, more than 70% of seniors said that they have worries about the virus’ effects on their younger relatives. Those concerns were equally expressed by younger generations for their older relatives. Almost 50% of both age groups are worried that their relatives will catch the virus.

However, the pandemic looks to have a silver lining for family communications. An overriding sense of concern for the mental and physical health of elderly loved ones has led to more contact since the pandemic began.

Nearly 44% of the younger survey-takers stated they’ve spoken to their older relatives more frequently during the pandemic, about 25% of young people reported visiting their older relatives in person more frequently.

The top request from respondents aged 75 and older to their loved ones, is to call more frequently.

Reference: McKnight Senior Living (Sep. 11, 2020) “41% don’t trust assisted living, nursing homes to keep residents safe during pandemic: survey”

medicare

Will Medicare Cover Everything?

Actually, far from covering all your healthcare needs, Medicare may leave you with thousands of dollars in expenses for which you’ll be responsible.

The recent article in The Mooresville Tribune entitled “3 Reasons Medicare Coverage Isn’t as Comprehensive as You Think” provides three reasons why:

  1. Medicare has expensive deductibles and coinsurance. There are different parts to Medicare. Part A covers hospital care. Part B pays for outpatient care. Each one has deductibles and some coinsurance expenses. Let’s look at these examples:
  • Medicare Part A has a $1,408 deductible per benefit period this year. If you are in the hospital more than 60 days during a benefit period, you’ll owe coinsurance costs starting at $352 per day, based on how long you remain in care.
  • Part B has a $198 deductible in 2020, and you’ll pay coinsurance costs of 20% of the Medicare-approved amount for medical services after you meet the deductible. You’ll also owe monthly premiums.
  • Part C (Medicare Advantage) takes the place of traditional Medicare (Parts A and B) with private insurance. Coinsurance, copay and premium costs vary by plan.
  • Part D (prescription drug coverage) has several plans with varying premiums and coverage rules.

As a result, with only Parts A and B, you could wind up paying thousands of dollars out of pocket. That’s especially true, if you’re hospitalized for a long time during the year or if you need extensive outpatient care.

  1. Coverage exclusions. In addition, there are some items of care that Medicare doesn’t cover at all. For example, Medicare doesn’t cover routine dental care, eye exams, contacts, hearing aids or glasses.
  2. Medicare doesn’t cover long-term care in most circumstances. A major Medicare exclusion is long-term care insurance. Medicare covers care in a skilled nursing facility under a few circumstances, such as after a long hospital stay when you need assistance from a medical professional to recover. However, the program doesn’t pay for “custodial care,” either at home or in a nursing home. Thus, if you require someone to help you with routine aspects of daily living, like getting dressed, eating, or using the bathroom, you’ll have out-of-pocket costs.

It’s important to know that long-term care can be very costly. The median monthly costs of home health aides are roughly $4,300, and a semi-private room in a nursing home costs about $7,500 in 2019, according to Genworth. Since Medicare won’t pay for any of this in most circumstances, you’ll need another way to pay for it.

Don’t assume that Medicare will cover all your needs as a retiree. So, prior to retirement, examine what Medicare will actually cover. That will help you determine the amount you’ll need to save for healthcare costs. You can also consider Medigap or Medicare Advantage Plans or look into long-term care insurance.

Reference: Mooresville Tribune (Aug. 10, 2020) “3 Reasons Medicare Coverage Isn’t as Comprehensive as You Think”

visiting grandparent during pandemic

Visiting Grandma at the Nursing Home

In spots where visits have resumed, they’re much changed from those before the pandemic. Nursing homes must take steps to minimize the chance of further transmission of COVID-19. The virus has been found in about 11,600 long-term care facilities, causing more than 56,000 deaths, according to data from the Kaiser Family Foundation.

AARP’s recent article entitled “When Can Visitors Return to Nursing Homes?” explains that the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has provided benchmarks for state and local officials to use, in deciding when visitors can return and how to safeguard against new outbreaks of COVID-19 when they do. The CMS guidelines are broad and nonbinding, and there will be differences, from state to state and nursing home to nursing home, regarding when visits resume and how they are handled. Here are some details about the next steps toward reuniting with family members in long-term care.

When will visits resume? As of mid-July, 30 states permitted nursing homes to proceed with outdoor visits with strict rules for distancing, monitoring and hygiene. The CMS guidelines suggest that nursing homes continue prohibiting any visitation, until they have gone at least 28 days without a new COVID-19 case originating on-site (as opposed to a facility admitting a coronavirus patient from a hospital). CMS says that these facilities should also meet several additional benchmarks, which include:

  • a decline in cases in the surrounding community
  • the ability to provide all residents with a baseline COVID-19 test and weekly tests for staff
  • enough supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE) and cleaning and disinfecting products; and
  • no staff shortages.

Where visits are permitted, it should be only by appointment and in specified hours. In some states, only one or two people can visit a particular resident at a time. Even those states allowing indoor visits are suggesting that families meet loved ones outdoors. Research has shown that the virus spreads less in open air.

Health checks on visitors. The federal guidelines call for everyone entering a facility to undergo 100% screening. However, the CMS recommendations don’t address testing visitors for COVID-19.

Masks. The federal guidelines say visitors should be required to “wear a cloth face covering or face mask for the duration of their visit,” and states that allow visitation are doing so. The guidelines also ask nursing homes to make certain that visitors practice hand hygiene. However, it doesn’t say whether facilities should provide masks or sanitizer.

Social distancing. The CMS guidelines call on nursing homes that allow visitors to ensure social distancing, but they don’t provide details. States that have permitted visits, state that facilities enforce the 6-foot rule.

Virtual visits. Another option is to make some visits virtual. Videoconferencing and chat platforms have become lifelines for residents and families during the pandemic. Continued use after the lockdowns can minimize opportunities for illness to spread.

Reference: AARP (July 22, 2020) “When Can Visitors Return to Nursing Homes?”